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This is the third in a series of posts about the concepts I use in my book Other People’s Struggles. The first two posts examined motivations and orientation. Constituents and adherents, I argue, have different motivations. The constituents seek something for themselves (or others of whom they are part). Adherents seek something for others of whom they are not part.
Precisely what the constituents and adherents seek is a matter of the orientation of the movement: that is the work the movement is engaged in. For example, if the movement is engaged in the pursuit of interests, the constituents are working to pursue their own interests (or the interests of others of whom they are part) and the adherents pursue the interests of others.
The degree to which this creates difficulties in the movement is a matter of the ambition of the movement’s work. More ambitious work presumes equality among the participants. Take, for example, a movement which is engaged in defining and pursuing a new, emergent interest. If its work is ambitious it will require the participants to participate on equal terms. It will be intolerable if some claim to have a superior grasp of what the interest is and how it should be pursued. Less ambitious work will find such claims less objectionable. They do not presume equality.
These differences of ambition are set out in the table below:
|In work of LOW AMBITION||Interests are not defined by the persons whose interests they are, but by others. |
Interests are already-formed (‘crystallized’).
|Identity claim is based on similarity.|
Claims are petitions from below. Tolerance and respect are sought for the new identity.
|Activists learn already-existing capabilities they do not possess (and others do).|
Activists acquire such capabilities through instruction (as pupils).
|Activists keep politics and life apart until the goal is achieved.
Activists embrace only the same goal.
|In work of HIGH AMBITION||Interests are defined by the persons whose interests they are. |
Interests are emergent.
|Identity claim is based on distinctness. |
Claims are demands from equality. Recognition and esteem are sought for the new identity.
|Activists discover, develop and assess capabilities they already possess. |
Activists acquire such capabilities through interactive discussion between teachers and taught.
|Activists live their politics now.
Activists seek to share everything with everyone (e.g. feeling the same way)
In the final post of this series, I will consider the approaches that may be taken to these problems.
I use the concept of orientation in my book Other People’s Struggles. It refers to the nature of the work that a social movement undertakes. In (1) the outward orientation, external goals or interests are defined and pursued. But social movements also do other things besides pursue interests in the outside world beyond the movement. I therefore propose three other orientations: (2) the expressive orientation, in which the work is the definition and expression of identities (experiences, needs and desires); (3) the empowerment orientation, in which the work is the production of empowered activists (persons with new or developed capabilities); and (4) the solidarity orientation, in which the work is the building a cohesive movement.
This is the first in a series of posts about the concepts I use in my book Other People’s Struggles. One of the first distinctions I make in the book concerns motivations. Existing theory, I think, muddles up goals and motivations. It assumes that if two people share a goal, they also share the same motivation. But that does not have to be so.
To begin with goals. Constituents seek something for themselves (or others of whom they are part). Adherents seek something for others of whom they are not part.
The ‘something’ could, of course be the ‘same thing’ for both constituents and adherents. For example, in Edwardian Britain, enfranchised men and unenfranchised women campaigned together to win the vote for women.
Men and women, in this example, shared the same goal (votes for women). But that is not the whole of the story. The goals, from another perspective, significantly differed. The unenfranchised women sought something for themselves (and others of whom they were part), and the enfranchised men sought something for others. That difference makes it necessary to consider whether their motivations also differed.
In Other People’s Struggles I examine three types of motivation: rational self-interest, moral obligations and social norms. In each case, I argue the typical motivations of constituents and adherents do indeed differ.
If motivated by rational self-interest, the constituents can be motivated by the collective benefit from which they will gain. But that motivation cannot apply to adherents, who will not gain from the collective benefit. They may, however – or so some theorists suggest – gain from selective incentives: those incentives made available only to those who participate. The so-called ‘warm glow’ you get when you help others is one example.
If motivated by moral obligations, the constituents are motivated by moral obligations owed to each other – I call these reciprocal obligations (I owe something to you, and you owe something to me) – where adherents are motivated by non-reciprocal obligations (I owe something to you which you do not owe to me).
If motivated by social norms, constituents are typically motivated by conjoint norms of reciprocity – norms like ‘help those who help you’ or ‘help your fellows’. Adherents are typically motivated by disjoint norms of service: that is, norms that enjoin people to do things for others without expectation of return.
These differences of motivation are set out in the table below:
MOTIVATION —» RATIONAL SELF-INTEREST MORAL OBLIGATIONS SOCIAL NORMS
CONSTITUENTS Collective benefits of goal accomplishment (and selective incentives). Reciprocal moral obligations to each other. Conjoint norms of reciprocity.
ADHERENTS Selective incentives. Non-reciprocal moral obligations to others. Disjoint norms of service.
In the next posts of this series, I will consider what effects these differences of motivation have on how social movements work. The first stage is to think about how they affect the variety of work movements do, which I term differences of orientation.